Berlin (ots) - N26, die mobile Bank, erweitert das Produktangebot in Österreich. Dank der ...
Shell Removes Lead From Light Aircraft Fuel
London (ots/PRNewswire) - Shell today became the first major oil company to develop a lead-free replacement for Aviation Gasoline (Avgas 100 and 100LL), which will now begin a strict regulatory approvals process. Avgas is one of the last common transportation fuels to contain lead and is used by light aircraft and helicopters. Shell's new lead-free formulation comes after 10 years of exhaustive R&D, as well as successful initial testing, carried out in the last two months by two original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).
Xinsheng (Sheng) Zhang, Vice-President of Shell Aviation, said: "We are proud of this first for Shell Aviation. This advanced product is the latest milestone in our long history of innovation. We believe that with industry support, a stringent approvals process can be completed for this new lead-free product within a short time-frame. We look forward to working alongside our technical partners and authorities to progress the necessary approvals needed to make this product a reality for use in light aircraft engines of all types."
Avgas currently includes lead in its formulation to meet fuel specifications and boost combustion performance (known as Motor Octane rating). Shell has developed an unleaded Avgas that meets all key Avgas properties and that has a Motor Octane rating of over 100, an industry standard. The development of a technically and commercially-viable unleaded Avgas that meets these criteria has been seen by the aviation industry as a significant challenge, due to the tight specifications and strict flight safety standards that it has to adhere to.
To get to this stage, Shell Aviation technologists carried out an intensive internal laboratory programme, including in-house altitude rig and engine testing. Working alliances were then formed with aviation engine manufacturer Lycoming Engines (Lycoming) and the light aircraft manufacturer Piper Aircraft Inc. (Piper). As a result, the formulation was successfully evaluated in industry laboratory engine (bench) tests by Lycoming and in a flight test by Piper.
"Lycoming Engines commends Shell on launching its unleaded Avgas initiative," states Michael Kraft, Senior Vice-President and General Manager of Lycoming Engines. "They engaged Lycoming to test their fuel on our highest octane demand engine and we can confirm that it's remarkably close to Avgas 100LL from a performance perspective. This initiative is a major step in the right direction for general aviation."
"Piper Aircraft is pleased to participate with Shell and Lycoming in this feasibility flight test programme," said Piper Vice-President of Engineering Jack Mill. "Recently, we successfully flew an experimental non-production Piper Saratoga with Shell's new formulation for about an hour. We appreciate the opportunity to work with Shell and Lycoming in this preliminary investigation of the technologies, which could in several years lead to flying unleaded fuel in our production airplanes."
Shell will now engage the aviation industry, regulators and authorities, including the US Federal Aviation Administration, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) to achieve approvals for the unleaded Avgas. Shell expects to also work with other OEMs to continue the testing and refinement program as the approvals process progresses.
NOTES TO EDITORS
For supporting images please click here [http://shell-moodboard.qbank.se/?h=529cc3ad8f84f545205dbbd6ea0629a5].
- The two main types of aviation [http://www.shell.com/home/content/aviation/products/fuels] fuel are aviation turbine fuel (jet fuel) and aviation gasoline (Avgas). Jet fuel is used by larger, gas-turbine-engine powered aircraft, while Avgas is used in smaller, piston-engine powered aircraft. Both are produced to very stringent specifications. - There are two main Avgas grades, 100 and 100LL (low lead). 100 is a measurement of octane rating. - Avgas is gasoline type fuel. The global volume for Avgas is much lower than jet fuel, as although Avgas-fuelled aircraft outnumber jet-fuelled aircraft, they are generally much smaller.
About Shell Aviation
- Shell Aviation is a leading global supplier of aviation fuels and lubricants with a heritage of over 100 years. We produce aviation fuels and lubricants (across a range of grades); market, sell and distribute them - as well as offer further related services to customers. We supply fuel at around 800 airports in approximately 40 countries. We refuel a plane every 12 seconds. - Our customers are airports and airlines, big and small, plus private customers such as corporate jet operators and flying clubs. We have one of the world's most extensive fuelling networks and have a strong supply chain. Used worldwide, our AeroShell aviation lubricants range is one of the world's most comprehensive with proven performance. - We have a portfolio of world-class brands and products and continue to invest in technical innovation. We have strong working relationships with OEMs, put the customer at the heart of what we do and respond to industry opportunities and challenges.
Royal Dutch Shell plc
Royal Dutch Shell plc is incorporated in England and Wales, has its headquarters in The Hague and is listed on the London, Amsterdam and New York stock exchanges. Shell companies have operations in more than 70 countries and territories with businesses including oil and gas exploration and production; production and marketing of liquefied natural gas and gas to liquids; manufacturing, marketing and shipping of oil products and chemicals and renewable energy projects. For further information, visit http://www.shell.com.
The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly and indirectly owns investments are separate entities. In this press release "Shell", "Shell group" and "Royal Dutch Shell" are sometimes used for convenience where references are made to Royal Dutch Shell plc and its subsidiaries in general. Likewise, the words "we", "us" and "our" are also used to refer to subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies. "Subsidiaries", "Shell subsidiaries" and "Shell companies" as used in this press release refer to companies in which Royal Dutch Shell either directly or indirectly has control, by having either a majority of the voting rights or the right to exercise a controlling influence. The companies in which Shell has significant influence but not control are referred to as "associated companies" or "associates" and companies in which Shell has joint control are referred to as "jointly controlled entities". In this press release, associates and jointly controlled entities are also referred to as "equity-accounted investments". The term "Shell interest" is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect (for example, through our 23% shareholding in Woodside Petroleum Ltd.) ownership interest held by Shell in a venture, partnership or company, after exclusion of all third-party interest.
This press release contains forward-looking statements concerning the financial condition, results of operations and businesses of Royal Dutch Shell. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements of future expectations that are based on management's current expectations and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning the potential exposure of Royal Dutch Shell to market risks and statements expressing management's expectations, beliefs, estimates, forecasts, projections and assumptions. These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as "anticipate", "believe", "could", "estimate", "expect", "intend", "may", "plan", "objectives", "outlook", "probably", "project", "will", "seek", "target", "risks", "goals", "should" and similar terms and phrases. There are a number of factors that could affect the future operations of Royal Dutch Shell and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements included in this press release, including (without limitation): (a) price fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas; (b) changes in demand for the Shell's products; (c) currency fluctuations; (d) drilling and production results; (e) reserve estimates; (f) loss of market share and industry competition; (g) environmental and physical risks; (h) risks associated with the identification of suitable potential acquisition properties and targets, and successful negotiation and completion of such transactions; (i) the risk of doing business in developing countries and countries subject to international sanctions; (j) legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments including regulatory measures addressing climate change; (k) economic and financial market conditions in various countries and regions; (l) political risks, including the risks of expropriation and renegotiation of the terms of contracts with governmental entities, delays or advancements in the approval of projects and delays in the reimbursement for shared costs; and (m) changes in trading conditions. All forward-looking statements contained in this press release are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Additional factors that may affect future results are contained in Royal Dutch Shell's 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2012 (available at http://www.shell.com/investor and http://www.sec.gov). These factors also should be considered by the reader. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this press release, 3 December 2013. Neither Royal Dutch Shell nor any of its subsidiaries undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or other information. In light of these risks, results could differ materially from those stated, implied or inferred from the forward-looking statements contained in this press release.
The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) permits oil and gas companies, in their filings with the SEC, to disclose only proved reserves that a company has demonstrated by actual production or conclusive formation tests to be economically and legally producible under existing economic and operating conditions. We may have used certain terms in this press release that SEC's guidelines strictly prohibit us from including in filings with the SEC. U.S. Investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our Form 20-F, File No 1-32575, available on the SEC website http://www.sec.gov. You can also obtain these forms from the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.
Enquiries: Shell International Media Relations: +44-20-7934-5550